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The Monuments Men were a group of men and women from thirteen nations, most of whom volunteered for service in the newly created Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives section, or MFAA. Most had expertise as museum directors, curators, art scholars and educators, artists, architects, and archivists. Their job description was simple: to save as much of the culture of Europe as they could during combat.
The team members, initially 30 men who were largely civilian art experts, crisscrossed Europe, often alone and under fire, chasing after fabled works from great museums, gold and silver heirlooms from Holocaust victims, even brass and iron bells from ancient church towers. Among the masterpieces they rescued were the Ghent Altarpiece (1432), the Madonna of Bruges by Michelangelo (1504) and Vermeer’s “The Astronomer” (1668), all intended for a colossal museum envisioned by Hitler. Their exploits were chronicled in a 2009 book by Robert M. Edsel, “The Monuments Men,” which has now been adapted into a movie by that name. . . from George Clooney. NYTimes
At the same time Adolf Hitler was attempting to take over the western world, his armies were methodically seeking and hoarding the finest art treasures in Europe. The Fuehrer had begun cataloguing the art he planned to collect as well as the art he would destroy: “degenerate” works he despised.
In a race against time, behind enemy lines, often unarmed, a special force of American and British museum directors, curators, art historians, and others, called the Monuments Men, risked their lives scouring Europe to prevent the destruction of thousands of years of culture.
Focusing on the eleven-month period between D-Day and V-E Day, this fascinating account follows six Monuments Men and their impossible mission to save the world’s great art from the Nazis.
During World War II, the Nazis systematically looted art works from all over Europe, while combat and aerial bombing unintentionally destroyed major landmarks. The story of the quest to protect, rescue and restore Europe’s cultural treasures is told in a new movie, “The Monuments Men.” Robert Edsel, author of the book that inspired the new film, joins Jeffrey Brown for a conversation.
Shortly we will be fighting our way across the continent of Europe in battles designed to preserve our civilization. . . . in the path of our advance will be found historical monuments and cultural centers which symbolize to the world all that we are fighting to preserve.
It is the responsibility of every commander to protect and respect these symbols whenever possible.
Dwight D. Eisenhower, General, US Army, May 26, 1944
Washington, DC—The officers who served in the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (MFAA) program rescued masterpieces from Nazi thieves during the chaos of liberation. Prior to the war, six of these officers were associated with the National Gallery of Art in Washington, and in later years three held important positions at the museum. Perhaps more important, even before the MFAA operation was established, the Gallery was the center of lobbying efforts to create such a program and later, in association with the Roberts Commission, worked tirelessly to support MFAA activities in the field.
“The Gallery is proud to have played such an integral role in the story of these real-life Monuments Men, ” said Earl A. Powell III, director, National Gallery of Art. “These men—and women—worked to protect Europe’s cultural heritage at the height of World War II, ensuring its safety in the aftermath and returning works, when possible, to their rightful owners once peace and security were restored.”
From February 11 to September 1, 2014, the Gallery will showcase The Monuments Men and the National Gallery of Art: Behind the History, an archival display featuring World War II-era photographs, documents, and memorabilia, many never before exhibited. On view in the West Building Art Information Room, the display will demonstrate the seminal role the National Gallery of Art played in the creation of the MFAA, the Roberts Commission, and the experiences of real-life MFAA officers.
The successful activities of these few men is out of all proportion to their number and their position within the military machine. The task was nothing less than to preserve as much as they could of man’s creative past.
During World War II, American art historians, museum and art professionals, and archivists were deployed as military officers to protect historical monuments, art, and archives in war theaters throughout western Europe. These “monuments men” were part of the military’s Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives (MFAA) program. The National Gallery of Art played a seminal role in its creation.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art has set up an itinerary of 11 works of art which narrowly escaped destruction and they indicate that without the foresight of The Monuments Men, these important paintings would not be in the Met’s collection today. The quote excerpted below is from the Met site.
The Monuments Men were 345 men and women, representing thirteen nations, who volunteered for service in the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program, or MFAA, during World War II. James Rorimer, a Monuments Man who eventually became the Met’s director, played a pivotal role in the MFAA’s efforts.
In a race against time, and under mandate from President Franklin D. Roosevelt and General Dwight D. Eisenhower, this group of unlikely heroes—museum directors, curators, art scholars, educators, artists, architects, and archivists—risked their lives on the front lines and worked tirelessly to protect Europe’s monuments and greatest cultural treasures from both the destruction of the war and seizure by Hitler and the Nazis. Without vehicles, typewriters, or full authority, they managed to track, locate, and return more than five million looted cultural items. Their role in preserving these treasures stands without precedent.
Use the following itinerary, complemented by writings from Monuments Men historians and James Rorimer himself, to discover eleven works of art that narrowly escaped destruction and were restituted to their rightful owners. Without the courage, determination, and foresight of the Monuments Men, these important paintings would not be in the Met’s collection today.
One of the paintings on the Met’s Itinerary is as follows:
In a special meeting held at the Met in 1941, the Fogg Art Museum’s associate director Paul Sachs addressed the war and its impact on the arts community: “If, in time of peace, our museums and art galleries are important to the community, in time of war they are doubly valuable. For then, when the petty and the trivial fall way and we are face to face with final and lasting values, we…must summon to our defense all our intellectual and spiritual resources. We must guard jealously all we have inherited from a long past, all we are capable of creating in a trying present, and all we are determined to preserve in a foreseeable future. Art is the imperishable and dynamic expression of these aims. It is, and always has been, the visible evidence of the activity of free minds.”
“Minutes of a Special Meeting of the Association of Museum Directors on the Problems of Protection and Defense held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art,” pp. 134–135, RG 7, Box 77, Publications, Metropolitan Museum, Conservation of Cultural Resources, Defense, Gallery Archives, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
SEE MORE AT:
Melissa Bowling, Associate Archivist, Museum Archives; and James Moske, Managing Archivist, Museum Archives
Posted: Friday, January 31, 2014
Several of the Monuments Men either were Metropolitan Museum staff members or joined the Museum after the war; they include Theodore Heinrich, Theodore Rousseau, Edith Standen, and Harry D. Grier. Perhaps the most prominent among them was James J. Rorimer, a Harvard-educated medieval art specialist first hired by the Metropolitan in 1927. Rorimer steadily rose through the curatorial ranks and was appointed curator of medieval art in 1934. He played a central role in the development of The Cloisters museum and gardens, the branch of the Museum located in upper Manhattan. In 1943, Rorimer left the Museum to join the United States Army, where he eventually became an officer in the MFAA. Between 1943 and 1946, Rorimer covered a broad territory between northern France and Germany in his pursuit of art treasures confiscated and hidden by the Nazis.
Following the showing of these works in a three-year traveling exhibition that criss- crossed Germany and Austria, most were sold, lost, or presumed destroyed. In this light, the recent discovery in Munich of the Gurlitt trove of such artwork has attracted considerable attention. The film “The Monuments Men,” directed by George Clooney which opened in February 2014, suggests the level of popular interest in the subject.
Works from the original exhibition include: Max Beckmann’s Cattle in a Barn (1933); George Grosz’s Portrait of the Writer Max Hermann-Neisse (1925); Erich Heckel’s Barbershop (1913); Ernst Luwig Kirchner’s Winter Landscape in Moonlight (1919), The Painters of the Brücke (1925/26); Paul Klee’s The Angler (1921), The Twittering Machine (1922), and Ghost Chamber with the Tall Door (New Version) (1925); Oskar Kokoschka’s The Duchess of Montesquiou-Fezensac (1910); Ewald Mataré’s Lurking Cat (1928); Karel Niestrath’s Hungry Girl (1925); Emil Nolde’s Still-Life with Carved Wooden Figure (1911), Red-Haired Girl (1919), and Milk Cows (1913); Christian Rohlf’s The Towers of Soest (ca. 1916) and Acrobats (ca. 1916); Karl Schmidt-Rottluff’s Pharisees (1912); and Lasar Segall’s Eternal Wanderers (1919), among others.
The Neue Galerie’s big spring show, “Degenerate Art: The Attack on Modern Art in Nazi Germany, 1937,” has been nearly three years in the making, yet it seems particularly prescient after the discovery last month of what may well be the biggest trove of missing 20th-century European art — about 1,400 works suspected of being traded or looted during the Nazis’ reign, including paintings by Matisse, Chagall, Renoir, Toulouse-Lautrec, Picasso and a host of other masters.
Some disappeared in the late 1930s, around the time the Nazis raided German museums and public collections, confiscating works they called degenerate because Hitler deemed them un-German or Jewish in nature.
This book accompanies the first major museum exhibition devoted to a reconstruction of the infamous Nazi display of modern art since the presentation originated by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in 1991. During the Nazi regime in Germany, “degenerate art” was the official term for much of the most important modern art of the day. “Degenerate art” was defined by the Nazi regime as artwork that was not in line with the National Socialists’ ideas of beauty.
Their condemnation extended to works in nearly every major art movement: Expressionism, Dada, New Objectivity, Surrealism, Cubism, and Fauvism. Banned artists included Max Beckmann, Paul Klee, and Oskar Kokoschka.
Richly illustrated, Degenerate Art elucidates the historical and intellectual context of the notorious exhibition in Munich in 1937, which spurred the attack on modern art.
The book contains reflections on the genesis and evolution of the term “degenerate art” and details of the National Socialist policy on art. Art works from the exhibition Degenerate Art are compared to works of art from The Great German Art Exhibition, which was held at the same time and displayed the works of officially approved artists. The book also presents the after-effects of the attack on modernism that are felt even today.
Watch the video interview by PBS with Robert Edsel, the author of The Monuments Men, the book which the film is based upon.
The Magazine, The True Story Behind ‘The Monuments Men’ By Julian Smith Feb 2014 Read more: http://www.mensjournal.com/magazine/the-true-story-behind-the-monuments-men-20140206#ixzz2tVkzqmnz
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Making watercolor paintings has brought Walton great joy over the years, and it also contributed to her deep appreciation for the work of professional artists. As a child, Alice Walton became interested in art as she painted watercolor landscapes with her mother, Helen.
Walton has often recalled her experiences, when she was young, painting watercolors with her mother during camping trips, which references a kind of nostalgic motivation behind her initial fascination with the aqueous medium when she started collecting art during the 1970s.
Her love of art has grown over a lifetime and she wants to share it with the world.
Her initial interest in collecting watercolors grew into a fascination with American art, which soon inspired her to collect works by American artists in many media.
At First Sight: Collecting the American Watercolor offers the rare opportunity to view some of the paintings that sparked Walton’s earliest collecting interests, including works by Thomas Hart Benton, John Singer Sargent, Winslow Homer, John Marin, Childe Hassam, Andrew Wyeth, Georgia O’Keeffe and Willem deKooning.
The At First Sight exhibition includes over 30 watercolors from Alice Walton’s private collection.
The exhibition dates are: January 18 through April 21, 2014. Other highlights for 2014 include a traveling exhibition of American and European masters of Modernism and a ground-breaking exhibition of contemporary American art.
Located in the heart of the country in Bentonville, Arkansas, Crystal Bridges explores the unfolding history of America by collecting and exhibiting outstanding works of art that illuminate our artistic heritage and enrich our understanding and appreciation of our nation and ourselves.
Located on 120 acres of native Ozark forest, Crystal Bridges’ grounds invite visitors to enjoy the natural environment as a continuation of their museum experience. The Museum’s distinctive architecture immerses visitors in the landscape, while three miles of nature trails encourage exploration and reflection.
Through our ever-expanding permanent collection of American art, temporary exhibitions, and a wide variety of entertaining and educational programs, Crystal Bridges has become an invaluable resource for our community, and a must-see attraction for tourists to Northwest Arkansas.
In addition, a number of ground-breaking exhibition and education initiatives place Crystal Bridges at the forefront in scholarship and outreach innovation.
Crystal Bridges Museum of Art, November 9, 2013 through February 3, 2014
When artist Georgia O’Keeffe died in 1996, she donated her late husband Alfred Stieglitz’s extensive collection of modern art to six different institutions: Fisk University; The Museum of Modern Art, New York; The Philadelphia Museum of Art; The Chicago Art Institute; and the National Gallery of Art and the Library of Congress, both in Washington D.C.
The works presently in Bentonville are now co-owned by Crystal Bridges and Fisk University. The collection will travel between the two institutions every two years.
Titled “The Artists’ Eye: Georgia O’Keeffe and the Alfred Stieglitz Collection,” the show features the artists Stieglitz most favored, including O’Keeffe, Charles Demuth, Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley and John Marin, alongside some of the early European Modernists who inspired them, including Paul Cézanne, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
This exhibition showcases the rise of American Modernism, a cause Stieglitz championed throughout his life. He began his career as one of the first gallery owners in the United States to exhibit European Modernists such as Toulouse-Lautrec and Cézanne. The European gems in “Through the Artists’ Eye,” are highlighted by canvases from Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Paul Cezanne and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec. Also on display are four works by 19th-century African artists, including a stunning Kota reliquary guardian figure.
Over time, however, Stieglitz became completely committed to supporting and encouraging artists he felt were creating a uniquely American style of Modernism.
Alice Walton, the daughter of Walmart founder Sam Walton, spearheaded the Walton Family Foundation’s involvement in developing Crystal Bridges. It is the first major art museum (over $200 million endowment) to open in the United States since 1974. Over $317 million of the project’s cost has been donated by Alice Walton. In 2005, art historian John Wilmerding was hired for acquisition and advice on museum programming. He stated that often when an artwork became available through a private sale Walton would state ‘Wait, it will come to auction where we can get it at a better price,’ and she was usually correct. He also stated that the museum ranks at least in the top half dozen of American art museums. The museum’s “quality and its range and depth already place it among one of the very best.”
Walmart heiress Alice Walton has for many years had a dream of building a world-class museum of American art in her hometown of Bentonville, Arkansas. Now, since she is the world’s third-wealthiest woman, Walton used the money to make this dream a reality. Martha Teichner reports. (November 6, 2011)
A Billionaire’s Eye for Art Shapes Her Singular Museum, New York Times
Inside The World Of Walmart Billionaire Alice Walton, America’s Richest Art Collector, Forbes, October 7, 2013
Walmart heiress Alice Walton’s new institution, a series of pavilions in a forested ravine, links nature to a major collection of American works. Architectural Record
Alice’s Wonderland, A Walmart heiress builds a museum in the Ozarks. The New Yorker
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ABOUT THE EXHIBITION: SAN FRANCISCO — The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco present David Hockney: A Bigger Exhibition, on view at the de Young Museum from October 26, 2013 through January 20, 2014. Assembled by Hockney exclusively for the de Young, this exhibition marks the return to California of the most influential and best-known British artist of his generation.
This first comprehensive survey of Hockney’s work since 2002 covers one of the most prolific periods of the artist’s career. Hockney’s book, Secret Knowledge: Rediscovering the Lost Techniques of the Old Masters was published in 2001, revealing his discovery that artists had used optical devices in their working processes centuries earlier than had been previously thought.
David Hockney: A Bigger Exhibition builds on the success of a recent exhibition organized by the Royal Academy of Arts in London, but encompasses a much larger scope, and includes many portraits, still lifes, and landscapes. In addition to watercolors, charcoals, oil paintings, and works in other media.
The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco will also be the first to exhibit and publish The Arrival of Spring in 2013 (twenty thirteen).
This work consists of 25 charcoal drawings, finished in May of this year, and has been described by Hockney as capturing “the bleakness of the winter and its exciting transformation to the summer.”
David Hockney: A Bigger Exhibition includes some of Hockney’s grandest works both in terms of size and concept, such as The Bigger Message, his 30-canvas re-working of Claude Lorrain’s The Sermon on the Mount.
Also included are more intimate works, like the artist’s portraits depicting friends, colleagues, and family members. These reveal the artist’s personal and intimate relationships, and illustrate a particularly tender understanding of his sitters.
Hockney’s most recent portraits—done in charcoal—will be exhibited and published for the first time by the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.
English painter, printmaker, photographer and stage designer. Perhaps the most popular and versatile British artist of the 20th century, Hockney made apparent his facility as a draughtsman while studying at Bradford School of Art between 1953 and 1957.
Hockney soon sought ways of reintegrating a personal subject-matter into his art. He began tentatively by copying fragments of poems on to his paintings, encouraging a close scrutiny of the surface and creating a specific identity for the painted marks through the alliance of word and image. These cryptic messages soon gave way to open declarations in a series of paintings produced in 1960–61 on the theme of homosexual love.
Hockney’s subsequent development was a continuation of his student work, although a significant change in his approach occurred after his move to California at the end of 1963. It is clear that when he moved to that city it was, at least in part, in search of the fantasy that he had formed of a sensual and uninhibited life of athletic young men, swimming pools, palm trees and perpetual sunshine.
On his arrival in California, Hockney changed from oil to acrylic paints, applying them as a smooth surface of flat and brilliant colour that helped to emphasise the pre-eminence of the image. By the end of the decade Hockney’s anxieties about appearing modern had abated to the extent that he was able to pare away the devices and to allow his naturalistic rendering of the world to speak for itself.
2002: In New York Hockney works on the revival of Parade: A Triple Bill at the Metropolitan Opera. Sees an exhibition of Chinese painting at the Metropolitan Museum, New York. While staying at the Mayflower Hotel in the city, he begins using watercolour and continues working in this medium when he travels to London. He spends almost one year in Britain. For the first time he sits for the painter Lucian Freud. He sees Thomas Girtin and the Art of Watercolour at Tate Britain.
In search of northern light he travels to the Norwegian fjords and Iceland, creating watercolours and sketchbooks of his journeys.
Hockney’s second portrait commission, to paint the Glyndebourne chairman Sir George Christie and his wife Mary for the National Portrait Gallery in London, is the catalyst for a series of large single and double portraits in watercolour of friends painted from life.
Also produces many pen-and-ink portrait drawings and fills numerous sketchbooks with quickly observed drawings of his life in England and his travels.
2003: In January a small exhibition entitled Five Double Portraits: New Work by David Hockney opens at the National Portrait Gallery in London, with the portrait of Sir George and Lady Christie as the centrepiece. An exhibition of double portraits and Norwegian landscapes opens simultaneously at Annely Juda Fine Art in London. Hockney returns to Los Angeles where he continues working in watercolour.
Attends the ‘Optics, Optical Instruments and Painting: the Hockney-Falco Thesis Revisited’ conference in Ghent, Belgium, in November. Receives an honorary degree from the Academy of Fine Arts in Florence and the Lorenzo de Medici Lifetime Career Award at the Florence Biennale.
2004: His travels in Spain and France in the early part of the year result in a series of watercolour landscapes. Spends time in Bridlington with his sister Margaret where he records the East Yorkshire landscape through the seasons, including a series of thirty-six watercolour studies.
In March, the Whitney Biennial in New York, a survey of contemporary American art, opens and includes Hockney’s recent watercolour works – portraits juxtaposed with still lifes of his Los Angeles garden. Travels to Palermo, Sicily, in May to receive the Rosa d’Oro Award.
Curates the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition with Allen Jones, showing a selection of his Spanish watercolours. Returns to Los Angeles at the end of the year. Hockney’s Pictures is published, an image-based retrospective book selected and organized by Hockney.
2005: Hockney works on a new series of almost life-size single and double oil portraits painted directly onto canvas with no pre-drawing. In February Hand, Eye, Heart, an exhibition of his Yorkshire landscapes, opens at LA Louver gallery.
The thirty-six watercolour studies are exhibited as one work. Hockney returns to England and spends the summer in Bridlington where he paints the East Yorkshire landscape in oil en plein air. Exhibits the single standing figures in the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition.
In preparation for David Hockney Portraits, he continues painting portraits including a series of paintings of Celia Birtwell’s granddaughter, Isabella. In September he visits Leipzig, Dresden and Berlin. Returns to Bridlington to paint the Yorkshire landscape in the autumn. Midsummer: East Yorkshire is exhibited in the Gilbert Collection at Somerset House, London.
2006: Attends the openings of the traveling ‘David Hockney Portraits’ exhibition at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, in February; at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art in June; and at the National Portrait Gallery, London, in October. Hockney continues to paint the spatial experience of the East Yorkshire landscape.
He develops a method where he is able to work on a large scale outdoors by using multi-canvas paintings that join to form one large picture. The first exhibition of these paintings together with their earlier single and double canvas counterparts is at Annely Juda Fine Art, London in September 2006.
2007: Travels to Los Angeles at the end of January to open an exhibition of his 2006 East Yorkshire Landscape paintings at L.A. Louver.
With the aid of digital photography his multi-canvas compositions culminate in the largest painting Hockney has ever made, comprising some 50 separate canvases that were painted outdoors and formed one giant painting measuring 15 x 40 feet titled Bigger Trees Near Warter that occupies a whole wall at the 2007 Royal Academy Summer exhibition where it was first shown in 2007.
Following his strong interest in watercolour, Tate Britain invites the artist to curate the largest exhibition of Turner watercolours ‘Hockney on Turner Watercolours’ that is shown from June 2007 to February 2008. To coincide with the exhibition Tate Britain also exhibits a selection of five of Hockney’s latest six-part Yorkshire Landscape paintings marking his 70th birthday.
Returns to Los Angeles at the end of December to begin stageing rehearsals for the twenty year revival of his opera production “Tristan und Isolde” at the Los Angeles Opera.
2008: Opens “Tristan und Isolde” at the Los Angeles Opera on January 19.
The subject matter of the East Yorkshire landscape in all its various seasons continues to stimulate Hockney. It is a landscape he has known since he was a boy when he used to work on a farm in the area during the school holidays. Gives his 50 canvas painting, “Bigger Trees Near Warter”, to Tate Britain at a Press Conference in April.
Exhibits ten of the Woldgate Woods paintings,”Looking at Woldgate Woods” at The Arts Club of Chicago in which all the works shown were devoted to just one of the Yorkshire landscape motifs that inspired him. Hockney begins to use the camera and large format prints as a means of production of the multi-canvas paintings to assist in the assembly of these massive works.
His assistant photographs stages of the paintings on location and later makes prints in the studio of the individual panels in order to view them together at a smaller size to track the development of the painting. This method allows him to work on location yet in context of the work as a whole.
2009: Exhibits at L.A. Louver in February and at Annely Juda Fine Art, London, in May, his inkjet printed computer drawings. Travels to Germany for the opening April 26th of “David Hockney: Nur Natur/Just Nature,” an exhibition of over 70 large format paintings, drawings, sketchbooks, and inkjet printed computer drawings at the Kunsthalle Würth in Schwabisch Hall. Returns to England to paint. Begins editioning ‘portraits’ from his inkjet printed computer drawing series.
Exhibits new paintings in a double venue show “David Hockney:Recent Paintings” at the PaceWildenstein galleries in New York, in October, his first major show in New York in over twelve years.
Nottingham Contemporary opens with “David Hockney 1960 – 1968: A Marriage of Styles” on November 14th through January 24th, 2010.
The above chronology is presented from: hockneypictures.com
Accompanying one of the most anticipated exhibitions of the past few years, this catalogue captures the grand scale and vibrant color of Hockney’s work of the twenty-first century. In the past decade, having returned to England after years on the California coast, David Hockney has focused his attention on both landscapes and portraits, all the while maintaining his fascination with digital technology.
The resulting work is a fanfare of color and light, ranging in dimension from billboard- to letter-size, and is the basis for a thrilling new exhibition that promises to become one of the most popular in recent memory.
This lush and impeccably produced catalogue features over 100 full-color works of art from museum collections and Hockney’s private studio, including such major new works as The Arrival of Spring in Woldgate Wood, The Bigger Message, and Bigger Yosemite.
It also includes multiple-image galleries (spread over gatefolds) of some of his iPad drawings and self-portraits, plus film stills from the artist’s “Cubist” movies. Hockney’s own insight into this latest chapter of his career is found across the book’s pages and is accompanied by thoughtful commentary by renowned critic Lawrence Weschler and art historian Sarah Howgate.
Since 2005 David Hockney has worked en plein air (outdoors) to depict landscapes using watercolor, oils, the iPhone and iPad, video cameras, and, most recently, charcoal. In his art, he has become increasingly interested in chronicling the passage of time. Back in his native England after living in southern California for 25 years, Hockney rediscovered the changing of the seasons, and worked on site in East Yorkshire to paint particular views at different times of the year.
In 2010 and 2011 he made digital videos of landscapes in Woldgate Woods, in East Yorkshire, depicting the same forest scene in winter, spring, summer, and fall. Using nine cameras simultaneously to create what he calls a “Cubist movie,” Hockney displayed the resulting videos on nine flat-screen monitors, allowing viewers to watch multiple changing perspectives in one work.
The Arrival of Spring in Woldgate, East Yorkshire in 2011 (twenty eleven), Version 3 is an installation of twelve printed iPad drawings made en plein air and a monumental thirty-two-canvas oil painting executed in the studio. Hockney visited and drew the same locations repeatedly, documenting the transformation from winter to summer on his iPad. In the painting, he conjures a dazzlingly colorful spring that has just arrived.
David Hockney: Paintings, Prints and Drawings, 1960–70 (exh. cat., ed. M. Glazebrook; London, Whitechapel A.G., 1970)
Travels with Pen, Pencil and Ink (exh. cat., intro. E. Pillsbury; London, 1978) [excellent standard of repr.]
David Hockney Prints, 1954–77 (exh. cat., intro. A. Brighton; ACGB, 1979) [fully illus. cat. rais.]
M. Livingstone: David Hockney (London, 1981, rev. 2/1987) [survey of Hockney’s work in all media]
M. Friedman, ed.: Hockney Paints the Stage (New York, 1983; add. insert pubd 1985) [substantial survey of Hockney’s work for the theatre]
L. Weschler: David Hockney Cameraworks (New York, 1983) [thorough account and excellent illus. of composite photos of 1982–3]
David Hockney: A Retrospective (exh. cat., ed. M. Tuchman and S. Barron; Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A., 1988)
Hockney in California (exh. cat., ed. M. Livingstone; Tokyo, Takashimaya Gal., 1994)
David Hockney: A Drawing Retrospective (exh. cat. by U. Luckhard and P. Melia, London, RA, 1995–6)
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In a recent ‘Resource Centre’ article, British art supplier and manufacturer, Winsor and Newton, focused on the contemporary works in watercolor by several British artists. In so doing they first noted some historical background of watercolour in England versus that of the French Academy, and thereby cited the issue of “heirarchy” in painting mediums.
“There are many preconceptions about watercolour; a paradoxical medium, seen by some as the perfect entry into painting but by many as technically challenging and difficult to master.”
“In the 19th century Turner and Constable introduced watercolour into fine art; however, the French Academy, copied throughout Europe, created a hierarchy of subjects suitable for the serious artist; history and myth being at the top, followed by ‘genre’ scenes, then landscape and still life. The only material they proposed for historical painting was oil colour; watercolour was considered suitable for sketches and associated with architectural painting and landscape.”
“As watercolour is a liquid I pour or drip it” says Alf Löhr, “or I throw it in the air to catch when it comes down!”
Alf Löhr sees an almost moral benefit to this material challenge; he believes you have to live with your mistakes, there is no cover up or rubbing out. He likes the simplicity of watercolour: “water + pigment +light; neither greasy nor plastic like acrylics.”
The historical association of water colour with sketching is part of the way London based artist Alf Löhr (www.alflohr.net) communicates his ideas about life and the creative process;
“Look at architecture and it is obvious that the highest level of creativity was at the stage of the original sketch or drawing. The rest is technical execution done by engineers. Art is not dissimilar.
For me, creativity is in the sketch, when the mind is still free to explore and is open for things to happen. That’s why watercolours are always nearer to life and more lively than cleverly executed artistic statements. Watercolours allow you to avoid big, heroic simplifications. You either look for life or you don’t.”
Born in Germany in 1957, Alf Löhr studied at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf and completed a PhD at the Royal College of Art, London. Having spent periods teaching, researching and working in New York, Australia, and Glasgow – to name a few – he has chosen London to be his home for the last twenty-five years. Since the early’s 1990s, Löhr has focused on producing small watercolours, and has gained in scope until producing large-scale works on canvas.
In a recent interview Alf Löhr responded to the question ‘what it is about a painting that might cause us to say that it is beautiful? ‘ with the following:
‘Whether it is abstract or representational, we find (a painting) beautiful if we can see a pattern in it, a grace of line or movement, harmony or proportion. The eye is caught by a pattern of colour, the way different colours relate to one another; the eye is caught by differentiation and contrast between dark and light, stillness and activity. And yet a painting is lifeless if it is too controlled, too obviously patterned, and organised and its objects too perfect. In truthful art as in a truthful understanding of life there is always a hint or echo of chaos, incompatibility, imperfection and so every beautiful artwork also has an element of pathos’.
Stephanie Tuckwell works on a number of paintings at one time; this encourages her to work swiftly and directly, shifting between paintings, sometimes to linger and work intensely, other times to move on rapidly. For Stephanie the special material characteristics of watercolour are both an idea in her art as well as a practical application.
“My work is a response to the edges of landscape, the meeting of land and sea, where mass meets fluids. My inspiration lies at the edges of the air, land and sea, my working methods lie in the area between the intentional and incidental; the fluidity and immediacy of watercolour which allow me to explore these concerns in an intuitive manner.”
“My work.. is a response to movement through the landscape; a glimpse from a train, a view from a mountaintop, being airborne in a glider, or standing on the edge of a cliff. I seek to arrive at an image that is a distillation of the experience of being present in the world at a particular moment.
Just as the focus of my inspiration lies at the edges of the air, land and sea, my creative practice lies in the area between the intentional and incidental. Working at these edges demands a mindful awareness and presence that embodies my experiences of the landscape. I work in series: my working methods tend to be swift and direct, shifting between drawing and painting, sometimes to linger and work intensely, other times to work more sparingly and moving on rapidly.”
Stephanie graduated from Goldsmith’s College London in 1975 and is based in Cardiff. Winner of the University of Glamorgan’s prestigious Art Purchase Prize for 2008, awarded the prize for Wales at the 2009 ING Discerning Eye Exhibition.
Winner of the 2005 Sunday Times Watercolour competition with her abstract paintings that embrace the transparent qualities of water colour, Carol Robertson (www.carolrobertson.net) loves the medium for its luminosity and the way it soaks into paper. She believes water colour brings a quality of light from the back to front and appears to reflect light. Carol uses soft brushes to lay down washes of colour, then over-paints, using a more saturated mix. She sometimes removes areas of watercolour with water and absorbent tissue to leave a stain or vestige. She masks out areas of an image and uses flicking or spattering as a softer unstructured contrast to careful linear detail.
Carol Robertson’s paintings are firmly rooted within reductive abstract conventions. Although she doesn’t seek to confirm or record the way the world looks, her work is never disconnected from it.. In earlier work Robertson choose to use the square, rectangle and circle for their ideal power and aesthetic beauty. Recent work has moved towards a more informal relationship with landscape, architecture, nature and the environment, encompassing notions of transience and change.
Multi-coloured arcs or circles now loosely traverse her canvases, with collisions and crossovers registering flashes of chance and coincidence, reminiscent of small arcane details that fleetingly curve across one’s vision.
Every painting is prepared with poured and stained grounds, unstructured atmospheric colour fields that deliberately highlight and complement carefully over-painted arcs as they collide and cross in their individual orbits.
The expression of flux and impermanence in this work reflects her changing response to the world. Art and beauty, however much they arise out of life, are now the defence against its ravages. As Nietzsche said “We have art that we may not perish from truth”.
“The power and beauty of geometric form and detail provides me with a catalyst for ways to make art. Adopting the formal restraints of a reductive and often repetitive geometric language takes the chaos out of what otherwise would be an impossibly vast set of visual options upon which to pin my existence. Geometry allows me to concentrate on the essential. It allows me the freedom to channel sensory or poetic material through its refined parameters. Over time my work evolves in tandem with whatever is happening in my life, emotionally, spiritually, intellectually and physically. The enduring constant is my commitment to working with the non-hierarchical and pragmatic language of geometric abstraction”.
Carol Robertson lives and works in London and is married to fellow artist Trevor Sutton. She is primarily a painter and printmaker, represented in the UK and USA by Flowers Gallery, by Galleri Weinberger in Denmark and by Peter Foolen Editions in the Netherlands.
In 2005 she won first prize in the Sunday Times Watercolour Competition. She was Research Fellow in Painting at Cardiff School of Art & Design from 2003 – 2008.
Her work has been exhibited extensively internationally, most recently in The Netherlands, Austria, Japan and USA. Since 2001 she has been a Returning Fellow at the Ballinglen Arts Foundation in Ireland. In 2012 she was artist in residence at the Kunstgarten in Graz, where she has made 3D objects for the first time. In 2013 she shows a new series of paintings titled Circular Stories at Galerie allerArt, Bludenz, Austria.
Barbara Nicholls’ (www.barbaranicholls.co.uk) watercolour paintings made with Winsor & Newton professional water colour suggest the stratification built up over millions of years in geological formations.
“I start by creating puddles of water on large sheets of paper. I apply the watercolour to this water and wait for the pigment to find the edge of the water. This creates a line of colour. I am interested in this line; it has a quality that I could not otherwise achieve.”
“Residue” Large watercolours produced during a year long studio residency at Winsor and Newton London 2013. “Nicholls takes as her point of departure systems of archaeological and geographical mapping, accumulations and isolated portions of material remains, the convoluted territorial alignments of the city (its physicality and historical layering), and the malleability of the actual materials out of which her work is made. She draws upon a substantial (though not arbitrary) armoury of technical processes and devices, bringing these together so as to produce works of a coherent yet open nature which ask that the viewer respond to them in an active and engaged way.”
Barbara Nicholls’ work operates across a broad range of artistic categories, employing a wide span of processes and techniques to address a number of engaging critical issues: questions of aesthetic form, surface and depth, chance and order, the handmade and the readymade, the archaeological and the cartographic, and the relations between work and play. Her approach, both to the subject matter with which she engages and to its material rendition is allegorical or metaphorical, rather than literal or mimetic. The objects Nicholls produces, be they primarily two dimensional or three dimensional forms, may thus be regarded as translations or complex developments with their own internal logic, structures which have, to a considerable degree, moved away from their original sources whilst nonetheless connecting to them through inference and analogy.
Nicholls takes as her point of departure systems of archaeological and geographical mapping, accumulations and isolated portions of material remains, the convoluted territorial alignments of the city (its physicality and historical layering), and the malleability of the actual materials out of which her work is made. She draws upon a substantial (though not arbitrary) armoury of technical processes and devices, bringing these together so as to produce works of a coherent yet open nature which ask that the viewer respond to them in an active and engaged way.
An individual work can display several, apparently contradictory methods of “inscription”, of technical know-how within its frame: drawing, painting, routing, folding and unfurling, tracing and tracking, sanding down and sharpening up. The result may be a multilayered, overly physical cluster of densely packed substances or, conversely, something minimal, neatly stripped down. Nicholls’ works might sometimes be better described as “accumulations” rather than as conventional paintings; they are certainly situated somewhere between or adjacent to conventionally established categories, this hybrid status being one of their most intriguing and seductive features.
Watercolour can have a particular, luminous quality achieved by applying transparent paint to white paper. Once applied, water colours are hard to move and artists respond in different ways to this challenge.
In a recent London exhibition Peter Haslam-Fox (haslamfox.com) showcased a series of large-scale, highly detailed paintings:
“Water colour by its very nature is unforgiving. The kind of focus needed to be brave with your subject and get it right first time is exhilarating. I find this especially true of working on a larger scale.”
” I am aiming to rejuvenate the neglected medium of Watercolour and push it in a new direction. The paintings draw more on the simplicity of Eastern traditions in ink than the more fastidious Western works on paper, though through the use of colour and scale try to merge the two worlds.
For the most part self contained, the subjects are chosen for their innate but simple strength. Similarly the painting of them reflects a clarity of style and a concentration of technique that I greatly admire in Chinese painting and calligraphy. Rather than relying on detail, the pictures depend as much on raw paper as paint for their description. “
Based in his South Lambeth studio, Haslam Fox has continued in his attempt to rejuvenate watercolours and while working on various private commissions, he continues to work on new series of works.
Peter Haslam-Fox, lives and works in London. He has won several awards including; The Benton Purchase Prize at ‘The Discerning Eye Exhibition’, Mall Galleries (2010) and The RWS/Sunday Times, ‘young artist’ (2008). His work has been exhibited at mixed exhibitions including; The Discerning Eye Exhibition, Mall Galleries and The Royal Watercolour Society Spring Exhibition, Bankside Gallery.”
Peter Haslam Fox is a London based figurative artist. For the large part self taught, he did start out at art school. He hated it, and instead went to Glasgow to study art history and then went on to work in a variety of professions around the world, latterly as a carpenter in London and gilder in the U.S. It was only in 2006 when a chance meeting with the artist Brendan Kelly rekindled his interest in painting that he ended up under his guidance for a year culminating in his first show at Ainscough Contempory Art.
A foray into Watercolour in 2007 unexpectedly led to his first series of paintings that explored the capital’s architectural and social diversity. He was named the RWS/Sunday Times’s 2008 ‘Young Artist’ and other works were showcased at the 2008 Discerning Eye Exhibition at the Mall Galleries and the 2009 21st Century Watercolour Exhibition at The Bankside Gallery.
The series entitled A Tale of Two Towers went on to form his critically aclaimed solo show, launching the ‘Art Work Space’ gallery in Bayswater. The paintings were described in ‘Art Of England’ magazine as “exquisite pieces of contemporary portraiture.”
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All Inspired by the Seaside Opening on Saturday, June 29, an exhibition at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art (Brunswick, Maine) explores for the first time Maurice Prendergast’s lifelong fascination with the seaside in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The first retrospective of Prendergast’s work in over two decades, Maurice Prendergast: By the Sea is on view from June 29 through October 13, 2013 and showcases a selection of more than 90 works in a variety of media, all of which were inspired by popular summer enjoyment of the seashore.
Tracing the artist’s deepening interpretations of his favorite subject, the retrospective exhibition features works from more than thirty public and private collections and foregrounds Prendergast’s experimental style and leading role in the development of early American modernism.
The installation spans five galleries, each painted differently to support the artist’s famous jewel-like colors, allowing visitors to dive into Prendergast’s fantastical world.
On Saturday, June 29, Nancy Mowll Mathews, co-curator of Maurice Prendergast: By the Sea and former Eugenie Prendergast Senior Curator of 19th and 20th Century Art, Williams College Museum of Art, delivered the exhibition opening’s keynote address. “Sea Change: Prendergast, Maine, and the Coastlines of Modern Art.”
No artist captured the holiday atmosphere of the New England coast better than Maurice Prendergast,” explains the exhibition’s co-curator Nancy Mowll Mathews, co-author of the Prendergast catalogue raisonne.
“Through the scope and complexity of the works that we are bringing together, Maurice Prendergast: By the Sea will illustrate how Prendergast transformed the visible reality of seaside resorts and coastal villages into an imagined, Arcadian vision all his own,” adds co-curator Joachim Homann, Curator of the Bowdoin College Museum of Art.
The focus on the theme of seaside leisure allowed Prendergast to create works of modern and experimental character shunning anecdotal subject matter in favor of formal innovation. The exhibition sheds light on the artist’s creative process by including a selection of Prendergast’s rarely seen sketchbooks and oil studies.
The sketchbooks provide visitors with an uncommon perspective on Prendergast’s extensive preparation of his compositions, highlighting his spontaneity and playfulness. In his oil sketches Prendergast heightened the sensual experience of beaches by liberating color.
Maurice Prendergast: By the Sea is the first exhibition to open under the leadership of the Museum’s new co-directors, Frank H. Goodyear III and Anne Collins Goodyear, who joined Bowdoin College on June 1.
“It is an honor to begin our time at the BCMA with this important retrospective of Maurice Prendergast, whose visionary and trailblazing work drew inspiration from this very region,” noted Frank Goodyear.
“Like Edward Hopper’s Maine (2011) and William Wegman: Hello Nature (2012), which explored the pleasures of summer through the eyes of insightful and rigorous artists, Maurice Prendergast: By the Sea continues to advance a fundamental part of the Museum’s mission to organize ambitious and accessible exhibitions that generate new scholarship and appeal to audiences both regionally and nationally,” said Anne Goodyear.
Maurice Prendergast (1858-1924) was one of the hordes of visitors who frequented New England beaches and resort towns between the 1890s and the 1920s. Prendergast was fascinated with modern life when it was most at ease, and his brilliant watercolors, animated oil sketches, and richly colored paintings provide insight into this age of leisure travel. Through his work, Prendergast articulated the promises of a society in “pursuit of happiness,” painting the public beaches of New England as the ideal venue for young and prosperous American society to celebrate its democratic values in communion with nature.
Among the highlights of the exhibition is a 1901 watercolor The Balloon, which is in a private collection and has not been included in earlier Prendergast retrospectives. The Balloon depicts a busy crowd watching a hot air balloon take-off and epitomizes Prendergast’s fascination with the new leisure activities that dominated the nation’s seashores. Another highlight is St. Malo, a vibrant watercolor created by Prendergast during his 1907 trip to France. On loan from the Williams College Museum of Art, St. Malo and its companion pieces were heralded as one of the first American introductions of the bold coloristic styles of the European Post-Impressionist avant-garde.
With The Promenade, ca. 1913 a modernist masterpiece from the Whitney Museum of Art, Prendergast responded to the paintings by Cezanne, Matisse, and others who reinterpreted the tradition of Arcadian landscapes in daring compositions. His seven contributions to the International Exhibition of Modern Art of 1913, the so-called Armory Show that brought together cutting-edge art from both sides of the Atlantic, appeared very European and experimental in color and paint surface.
Maurice Prendergast (American, 1858-1924) was born in Newfoundland and grew up in Boston. He worked mainly in watercolor and monotypes, as well as in oil. His Post-Impressionist style—bright colors, flat patterning and rhythmic compositions—was influenced by an early apprenticeship to a commercial artist, studies in Paris and an extended journey through Italy.
Prendergast traveled widely on both sides of the Atlantic. He was among the American painters who embraced Europe and promoted European art and artists in America.
He studied in Paris in the late 1800s, and particularly admired the work of Paul Cezanne for his use of color. Later, he traveled to Italy and made paintings of Venice that remain some of his most popular works today.
Prendergast became popular around the turn of the century with major shows in Chicago and York. His inclusion in the so-called Armory Show of 1913 — he had a half-dozen paintings in the show — signaled the extent of his popularity and acceptance.
The Armory Show was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, and is still considered one of the most important and influential exhibitions in U.S. history a century later.
Prendergast’s work was successful with early collectors of modern art in America and continues to be highly sought after today. Prendergast’s watercolors and paintings are represented in most major collections of American 20th-century art. Exhibitions of his art have been popular with American audiences ever since the 1890s.
Maurice Prendergast: By the Sea features a number of works from the BCMA’s own collection in addition to loans from over thirty American private and museum collections, including the Museum of Modern Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the Phillips Collection, and the Addison Gallery, among others. The Williams College Museum of Art, home of the Prendergast Archive and Study Center, is the principal lender.
This selection of works in a variety of media focuses on Maurice Prendergast’s creative process as he imaginatively and innovatively captured the look and feel of coastlines from New England to France and Italy.
The seaside watercolors, paintings, monotypes, and sketches of Maurice Prendergast invite viewers into a world of sunlight and sailboats, leisure and amusement. Accompanying the first retrospective of Prendergast’s work in more than two decades, this book traces the artist’s experiments with different media and highlights innovative techniques that established his reputation as early modernist. Filled with exquisite reproductions of Prendergast’s luminous work—well-known masterpieces and rarely seen, equally compelling examples—this volume also features contributions by an impressive roster of distinguished scholars whose essays provide fresh ways of thinking about a quintessentially American artist. Sumptuously illustrated with more than 100 color illustrations, this appealing volume celebrates one of the nation’s most popular and canonical painters.
The book accompanies the exhibition, Maurice Prendergast: By the Sea, on view at the Bowdoin College Museum of Art from June 29 through October 13, 2013.
Hardcover, 176 pages, 100 color illustrations, 5 b/w illustrations.
A fully illustrated and beautifully designed catalogue, published by DelMonico Books-Prestel, accompanies MauricePrendergast: By the Sea. The book presents new scholarship by some of the leading Prendergast scholars, such as Dr. Nancy Mowll Mathews, the recently retired Eugénie Prendergast Senior Curator at the Williams College Museum of Art and co-author of the Prendergast catalogue raisonné, and Dr. Richard J. Wattenmaker, former director of the Smithsonian’s Archives of American Art. It will also offer insights by leading curators who discuss Prendergast’s work from unusual perspectives; additional authors are Dr. Trevor Fairbrother, nationally recognized independent scholar and curator; Dr. Joseph J. Rishel, Gisela and Dennis Alter Senior Curator of European Painting before 1900 and Senior Curator of the John G. Johnson Collection and the Rodin Museum, at the Philadelphia Museum of Art; and Dr.Joachim Homann, curator of the Bowdoin College Museum of Art. Twenty years after the last retrospective exhibition, this exhibition and catalogue introduces a new generation of readers to Prendergast’s experimental and innovative art by focusing on his seaside work.
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Robert Sterling Clark declared that Winslow Homer (American, 1836–1910) was one of the greatest artists of the nineteenth century. After purchasing his first Homer painting in 1915, Clark began a passion that would last for decades and would become the greatest collection of works of Winslow Homer ever assembled by one person after the artist’s death—and one of the leading collections of any art museum in the United States..
The exhibition presents the full range of the Clark’s Homer collection, including works on paper that are rarely on view due to their light-sensitive nature. In addition to works from the Clark, a selection of loaned works is also presented.
The paintings in the Clark collection are recognized as being among Homer’s finest and offer insight into Homer’s thematic and technical development throughout his career. The presentation of Undertow (1886), along with six preparatory drawings accompanying it, gives an intimate look at the artist’s design process and offers insights into how Homer developed one of his most important figural works. .
The exhibition is complemented by the first complete documentation of the Clark’s Homer collection with the publication of Winslow Homer: The Clark Collection, a catalogue by Homer scholar and exhibition curator Marc Simpson.
Winslow Homer (1836–1910) was a primarily self-trained painter in oil and watercolor who, during his lifetime and since, has been lauded as among the most accomplished of American artists. He began his career making illustrations for weekly newspapers.
By the mid-1860s, he had gained renown for his oil paintings of Civil War subjects, such as Prisoners from the Front (1866; The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), and scenes of country life and leisure. He gave up illustration work in the mid-1870s and focused his attention on watercolor and other fine arts media.
After spending two years (1881–82) honing his craft and creating images of the fishing culture of the English village of Cullercoats, Homer returned to America and moved into a studio in Prout’s Neck, Maine. He turned increasingly to life on or at the edges of the sea for his oil paintings, and works such as Life Line (1884; Philadelphia Museum of Art) document his fascination with the often adversarial relationship between mankind and the ocean.
For both sport and inspiration, Homer traveled along the Atlantic seaboard, from Maine to Florida, and inland from the Adirondacks to the Laurentians. These travels are reflected in his work, especially in scenes of deer hunting and fishing. In his later paintings, the meeting of wave and rock at Prout’s Neck, in various conditions of light and weather, became the elemental subject that riveted his attention and on which his reputation has significantly depended.
Robert Sterling Clark admired Winslow Homer (1836-1910) more than any other American artist. In 1942, he asserted with confidence: “I put Winslow Homer as the greatest artist of ours.” Acting on this belief for forty years, from 1915 through 1955, he purchased Homer’s oil paintings, watercolors, and other works in such numbers that, in the end, he owned more works by Homer than by any other artist..
Homer began making watercolors professionally in 1873, prompted by the medium’s rising popularity. His works from that decade are often redolent of romance, but they counter easy sentimentality with their summary technique and a lack of clear narrative. During his stay in England (1881–82), Homer made many more watercolors than oils, winning critical and commercial success with them. Later in life, he painted watercolors while on his frequent travels, often using startling perspectives or color schemes that reflect both popular illustration and Japanese aesthetics at the same time as they reveal his increasingly unconventional way of responding to the world. Between 1873 and 1905 Homer made nearly seven hundred watercolors, transforming the medium and his artistic achievement as a whole.
Clark purchased his first two Homer watercolors in 1917 and continued acquiring them into the 1950s, assembling an impressive collection of Homer’s work in the medium.
For most of 1881 and 1882, Homer lived in the English village of Cullercoats, near Tynemouth, on the North Sea. There, he concentrated on watercolors, depicting the working lives of the people in the fishing community. The painting Perils of the Sea portrays a group gathered at the Volunteer Life Brigade’s Watch House. Seven years after completing the watercolor, Homer made an etching after it, altering some of the details and retaining the natural reversal of a composition that takes place in the printing process. He included two remarques (the small images of an anchor and a sailor’s head) in the lower margin. Homer clearly felt that Perils of the Sea offered a theme to which a wide audience would respond. Sterling Clark achieved a collecting coup by acquiring both the watercolor and the etching and bringing the two versions together.
More important than the size of his collection, however, was its quality. In its breadth and ambition, Clark’s collection became the finest gathering of Homer’s works put together by any person after the artist’s death. The extraordinary nature of the collection became clear to the outside world only when Clark opened his museum in Williamstown in May 1955. In the intervening half-century-plus, the museum has built on this strength, augmenting the original Homer collection through both purchase and gift, and has placed the Homer collection at the core of its exhibition practice and educational mission.
Mr. Marc Simpson (Author)
Winslow Homer (1836–1910) is one of the core figures of 19th-century American art. While most well-known for his oil paintings of Civil War scenes and the windswept Atlantic coastline, Homer’s oeuvre encompasses a variety of themes, ranging from childhood games through the life-and-death struggles of man and nature. The Clark Art Institute holds one of the greatest collections of Homer’s work across all media, including wood engravings, etchings, watercolors, drawings, and paintings from nearly all phases of his career. The collection was assembled predominately by Robert Sterling Clark (1877–1956), who purchased his first Winslow Homer painting in 1915, followed by Two Guides in 1916 and maintained a passion for the artist throughout the rest of his collecting career, acquiring the small oil Playing a Fish in 1955.
This book examines Robert Sterling Clark as a collector of Homer and the Clark’s extensive holdings of the artist. Over thirty entries discuss the role of individual works in Homer’s oeuvre and their larger significance to the art world. An illustrated checklist provides information on titles, dates, and media for the entire collection.
In the book, Twentieth Century Watercolors, Christopher Finch states: The greatest American watercolorist of that generation, and one whose art was at its prime in the early 1900’s, was Winslow Homer. An illustrator early in his career, Homer began to paint seriously in oils in his mid-twenties and in watercolors in his mid-thirties. The early watercolors, though charming, are not remarkable original, and it was not until 1881 and 1882, while the artist was in the English fishing village of Cullercoats, that he began to produce powerful work in the medium. Returning to America, he settled on the Maine coast. It was there, as well as on his travels to such places as the New York Adirondacks and the Caribbean, that he produced, over a period of almost three decades, scores of paintings that entitle him to be considered among the greatest watercolorists of any period.
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“JR@Eighty” was the title of a recent exhibition of monumental watercolors by Joseph Raffael at the Nancy Hoffman Gallery in Chelsea. There were three themes which were explored in this exhibition: Gardens in refulgent bloom, Shells and Fossils, and the Japanese Koi Pond. These types of images from nature have been prominent, not only in his work for the last three years, but also for his entire career in painting.
The new work is more intimate, more intense, more filled with light and splendor. This is “Joseph Land,” the title of David Pagel’s essay for the catalogue accompanying the show, where the sun is always shining, and magic awaits.
Twenty-five years ago, Joseph Raffael and his wife Lannis moved to the South of France, wanting to simplify life so that Joseph could devote himself to painting without distraction. Over this quarter century, the couple, who live in a simple home overlooking the Mediterranean Sea, have created what might be called “Joseph Land.” Lannis planted a garden “sauvage,” in the midst of ancient trees and bushes and succulents, with flowers of every color of the rainbow. They created two koi ponds on the property, framed by stones the Mediterranean has washed smooth over millennia. The flowering plants matured, the carp grew large, the birds in the outdoor aviaries multiplied, and with the years, an earthly paradise blossomed. It is this paradise teeming with life force that provides the artist with his subjects: flowers, koi, birds, shells, the abundance of the gardens that surround their house.
New in this work is a sense of time, time passing, the urgency of the moment: a pond captured in a summer breeze, never to appear with the same shimmer or ripples again; a garden dense in foliage, with flowers peeking through a tapestry of myriad greens, a moment in springtime’s warmth.
Selecting the “Moment” series with the garden subtitle “You Can’t Step Into the Same River Twice,” is an indication the artist has time on his mind as he turns a new decade. These are not images of nature, these are abstractions inspired by nature, they are resplendent reflections on life, meditations on what it means to be alive. Each work is an ode to life in multi-color, “jewel-encrusted” passages of watercolor. These are watercolors to “fall into,” to roam about in and to explore. They are not quickly viewed or experienced. Every square inch is filled with rich color, interweaving squiggles, and lines and circles and facets, and juxtapositions that frolic and play with the mind and the eye, colors that cavort energetically across the paper, and cohabit joyfully. Simply stated Raffael’s new work is a celebration of life.
David Pagel writes of Raffael’s work:
“If you come to one of Raffael’s pictures of flowers or fish or water or seashells and crystals with an open mind, and believe that you have not seen it all, then it’s likely that you will begin to see things you’ve never seen before, much less articulated, imagined, or grasped in the core of your being.
“That’s when the magic happens.
“And that’s the whole point of Raffael’s patiently painted pictures of readily identifiable flora and fauna. These intensely focused images, made up of innumerable dabs, strokes, and touches of a brush’s paint-saturated hairs, find freedom in discipline, or boundlessness in structure, and, in so doing, invite views to dive more deeply into the mysteries of ourselves, which, in the universe Raffael paints, have lots in common with the mysteriousness of others.”
Joseph Raffael was born in Brooklyn, New York in 1933.
Raffael began drawing at the age of 7. He pursued the study of art in high school, at the Brooklyn Museum, then later at the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Art and Science in New York and at the Yale University School of Art under Josef Albers. He also received a Fulbright Fellowship to Florence and Rome.
He launched his first exhibition of watercolors in 1963 and has since exhibited often and widely.
He’s been the recipient of numerous awards and prizes and the subject of the full-length art book Reflections of Nature by Donald Kuspit and Amei Wallach (Abbeville Press, 1998). His work is available for viewing at many of the nation’s finest art institutions and museums, as well as the Nancy Hoffman Gallery in New York (www.nancyhoffmangallery.com),. A list of past and present exhibitions, biographical material, images of Raffael’s studio, videos of the artist painting, completed work and works-in-progress are available on his Web site at www.josephraffael.com.
See more about Joseph Raffael’s story, see inside his studio, and the sources and inspiration for his work.
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The Brooklyn Museum and The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston both purchased significant works in watercolor by John Singer Sargent. Sargent only participated in two major watercolor exhibitions in the United States during his lifetime (1856-1925). The first, in 1909, was very well received and was seen in New York at the Knoedler Gallery and the entire exhibition was purchased by the Brooklyn Museum. It was in 1912 that the second Knoedler exhibition presented works which were equally praised and this time it was the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston which purchased all of the exhibited works (before the exhibit opened.)
Now for the first time these two collections come together, with almost 100 watercolors being exhibited, first at the Brooklyn Museum (4/5 to 7/28, 2013), then to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (10/13 to 1/20 2014) followed by the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (3/2 to 5/26 2014). The exhibition also presents nine oil paintings, including Brooklyn’s An Out-of-Doors Study, Paul Helleu and His Wife (1889) and Boston’s The Master and His Pupils (1914).
John Singer Sargent was born in Florence, Italy in 1856 to American parents. He was descended from a New England family of merchants and shipowners. Sargent’s mother, from a prominent Philadelphia family, persuaded her husband, a promising physician, to move to Europe, where they led a nomadic life as expatriates. His mother encouraged John’s natural ability at drawing and so he kept many sketchbooks during their travels.
It was in Rome in 1868 that he received his first instruction from a professional artist. In 1870 Sargent entered Accademia delle Belle Arti, Florence.
The family moved to Paris in 1874, where he first entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts at the age of 18, then soon transferred to the private Studio of Carolus-Duran. Through this tutelage, Sargent became focused on portraiture. Carolus-Duran’s teaching was considered progressive among academic instructors because of its painterly, direct handling. There was more of an emphasis on form and color rather than line. Duran was a fervent admirer of Velazquez and a friend of Manet. Sargent painted his mentor in 1879.
In Paris, at this time there was a great deal of artistic energy. It had been in April of 1874 that there had been an exhibition by a revolutionary group of painters, which an angry critic had termed “Impressionists.”
In May of 1876 Sargent accompanied his mother and sister on his first trip to the United States, where at the age of 21 he established his American citizenship. He steadfastly clung to that status, despite living abroad for his lifetime, and despite being offered many foreign honors.
At the age of 22, Sargent was awarded an Honorable Mention in the Salon of 1878, with a painting in the landscape genre. Then, in 1879, Sargent first began to be seen as a portraitist in his own right, and less connected to the study with Carolus.
In the fall of 1879, Sargent visited the Prado in Madrid in order to study the Velazquez paintings first hand. Music as a theme became a primary theme of two important works whose foundation can be traced to the 1879 Spanish trip. El Jaleo was the second of these (Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum.)
Sargent’s painting career in Paris came to a close soon after his painting of the portrait of Madame X, (Metropolitan Museum of Art). This painting created quite a scandal after he exhibited the work at the Salon of 1884. This public and press indignation resulted in driving away prospective sitters.
In 1885, Sargent moved to London. England promised to bring new prospects for his career. He also resumed interest in plein air painting during that time. During 1888 and 1889 Sargent was deeply influenced by Monet, who had been a friend when he was in Paris. There was a relaxation of his attitude toward subject matter. And about 1887 he renewed an old interest in watercolor painting, though without the zest of his later work.
Sargent’s best period of production for watercolors began about 1902. He was 44 years old in 1900, and had become well established as the greatest Anglo-American portrait painter of his time. By then he had finished the first phase of the mural for the Boston Public Library and was progressing with the second. He was residing in his own house in London. However, as he had grown weary of the professional pressures of the portrait commissions, he sought refuge through travels to remote locations where he could paint figure and landscape subjects.
Sargent is said to have created about 900 oil paintings and more than 2,000 watercolors plus sketches and charcoal drawings. He created watercolors as he traveled worldwide, to Venice, to marble quarries in Italy, Corfu, the Middle East, and North Africa.
There were hundreds of watercolors based on Venice, its gondolas, and spectacular light. In his last decade he produced many watercolors as he traveled to the American West, Maine, Florida.
The works from the Brooklyn Museum are smaller in scale, and looser in style, while Boston’s collection includes larger works, which are more finished in execution. The visitor will see many water views of Venice, as seen from the perspective of a gondola, and Venetian architectural scenes in shimmering light. There are also Italian gardens with statues highlighted through shimmering trees.
A distinct group of the Brooklyn watercolors are of the Bedouins, a nomadic Arab tribe. In writing about his forthcoming New York exhibition of 1909, Sargent stated that “Those Bedouin things would make a sort of piece de resistance.”
There are landscapes and figurative works painted during summers in the Alps. Sargent often traveled with relatives or friends; there are many figures populating the landscapes.
A group of works from the Boston archives were created from his visits to the work sites of the Carrara marble quarries, near Florence, where he was inspired by the quarries’ strange and dramatic landscapes.
In many ways Sargent’s approach to watercolor was considered unconventional. One of the more unusual aspects of the documentation of this exhibition is a focus on tools, materials, and the techniques employed in Sargent’s paintings. The outstanding publication, which accompanies the exhibition, has a special chapter which analyzes specific techniques which were used, the kinds of tools and materials which Singer utilized in creating his watercolors. Questions are addressed such as whether there was underdrawing in specific works, whether papers were from blocks or single sheets, and which kinds of brushes were used.
In addition to the works of art, the exhibition features a special section that deconstructs the artist’s techniques, based on new discoveries about his pigments, papers, drawing techniques, paper preparation and application of paint. And selected works throughout the exhibition are paired with videos that show a contemporary watercolor artist demonstrating some of Sargent’s working methods.
It is indicated that Sargent used a variety of means to achieve the luminous effects. He sponged wet washes into each other while preserving the white of the paper for the lights. Sometimes he washed over wax resist to create textures, or scratched out lines with the end of a brush or a knife, and to finalize a painting he might employ gouache or China white for the highlights. All in all his technical virtuosity and spontaneous methodology did not leave much room for making corrections or major changes. He was more reliant on his initial perception, choice of subject and location, and his considerable level of skill, so that he could produce work with speed and clarity.
In the following three examples, descriptions are provided by the Brooklyn Museum which supply information about the technical approach to the respective paintings:
“In this work, one of the latest of the watercolors in the 1909 purchase, Sargent used a small amount of clear wax on the right side of the larger boat in order to repel the blue washes and create highlights. This is the only watercolor in the collection from the 1909 purchase in which wax resist is found. Sargent’s use of this technique later increased significantly; most of Boston’s watercolors purchased in 1912 contain wax.”
“Sargent evoked the animated play of shadows across the form of a small outbuilding in this aptly titled watercolor. He added zinc white to nearly all of the washes used to represent shadow, lending them a chalky feel suggestive of the whitewashed stucco surface. Both unpainted reserves of white paper and strategic color lifting create the effect of light emerging from the violet, tan, and blue shadows on the building. The acuity of Sargent’s eye and hand is especially evident in the transitions in color along the edge where the two walls meet.”
“In his seemingly incidental, snapshotlike views of the Villa Marlia pool garden, Sargent celebrated mossy balusters and potted lemon trees more than the imposing fountains of the river gods Arno and Serchio. At least one photograph taken by Sargent at Marlia suggests that he may have employed photography to test or record his compositions. He began the Marlia watercolors by defining the sculptural foreground elements with loosely sketched layers of contrasting colors. He then roughed in the backdrops of dense greenery to throw the glare-struck forms into even stronger relief.”
Over the years Sargent received many honors. In 1889 he was awarded the title of Chevalier of the Legion of Honor by the French government. In 1896 he was elected full Academician, National Academy of Design, New York; Royal Academician, Royal Academy, London; Officier of the Legion of Honor, Paris. In 1903 the degree of L.L.D. was conferred by University of Pennsylvania. and in 1904 he received the D.C.L. from Oxford University. In 1909 he was awarded the Order for Merit by France and Order of Leopold of Belgium; L.L.D. conferred by Cambridge University. These latter honors came at a time when Sargent decided to abandon portrait painting. In 1916, Sargent was awarded L.L.D. from Yale University and the Doctor of Arts from Harvard University.
John Singer Sargent Watercolors is organized by the Brooklyn Museum and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The exhibition is co-curated by Teresa A. Carbone, Andrew W. Mellon Curator of American Art, Brooklyn Museum, and Erica E. Hirshler, Croll Senior Curator of American Paintings, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
By Erica E. Hirshler, Teresa A. Carbone. Text by Richard Ormond, Annette Manick, Antoinette Owen, Karen A. Sherry, Janet Chen, Connie Choi.
“John Singer Sargent was a portraitist to royalty, a dazzling watercolorist, an obsessive traveler, and an accomplished pianist and chess player. Join us for a conversation with Richard Ormond, Sargent’s grandnephew and one of the foremost authorities on the artist and the man. Coauthor of the exhaustive catalogue raisonné of Sargent’s works and contributor to the catalogue for the exhibition John Singer Sargent Watercolors, Ormond will share his unparalleled knowledge of Sargent’s life and art with Teresa Carbone, Andrew W. Mellon Curator of American Art, and co-curator of the exhibition.”
This event took place at the Brooklyn Museum Thursday, April 4, 2013
This event took place on October 23, 2013 at the MFA’s Remis Auditorium
Richard Ormond, grandnephew of John Singer Sargent and one of the foremost authorities on the painter and the man, joins Erica Hirshler, co-curator of “John Singer Sargent Watercolors,”
Museum of Fine Arts Houston assistant curator Kaylin Weber talks about Sargent’s masterful depiction of light and shadow, and why Houston is an especially appropriate stop for this traveling exhibition.
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Morgan Lehman Gallery presents “Boys & Girls”, a solo show of new watercolors by Kim McCarty. This is the artist’s first solo show with the gallery.
After working for many years in oil paint, McCarty began using watercolor when her California studio was destroyed by wild fire. Since then, McCarty has embraced it as her primary medium and has set out to execute her works on a larger-than-life scale.
McCarty uses a wet-on-wet technique, saturating the form with water before applying pigment with a loaded brush to the paper. When the pigment hits the water-laden paper, it creates soft ripples of color and gradations of value, expressing both flaws and perfection, and the dichotomy between uncertainty and focus.
McCarty’s imagery and compositions are derived from personal photographs.
She uses these images as specific references to develop a particular pose or composition. The figures or “beings” all seem related, familial – perhaps a human subspecies.
They are capable of communicating a feeling or a mood that is universal, yet deeply intimate and personal.
Some figure’s express longing, others seem sexy and intriguing, some innocent and unaware of our voyeurism. In these boys and girls we see our emotional selves reflected, and catch a glimpse of the fragility and tenuousness of the human experience.
“I have always been interested in identifying an expression that suggests both longing and loss. My work has gone through stages of subject matter from images of adulthood to the recent exploration of adolescence. I’m interested in the adolescence expression of fragile vulnerability and their knowing and questioning gaze.
By using a “wet into wet” watercolor medium and without specific subject, I wish to convey the transitory and emergent state. The figures heads become too large for their small, narrow bodies, their hands too large for their arms. The watercolor is so translucent that the medium expresses both flaws and perfection.
The process is extremely fleeting and an image is either created or lost within seconds. It can sometimes take weeks to create a watercolor that has the delicate balance of realism and abstraction. In many ways this watercolor process feels much like the immediacy of childhood and adolescence itself. By this process I attempt to explore the dichotomy between uncertainty and focus, and the emotional state that lies beneath the surface.”
FP: The organic medium of watercolor is so fitting for your ethereal style and for the delicacy of both children and flowers. Have you always used watercolors? And are there drawings first or just paint to paper?
KM: “When I was in graduate school and for sometime after I only worked in oils. I was searching to create a more aggressive, painterly effect. I was also influenced by the figurative expressionism of Julian Schnabel, George Baselitz, and David Salle. It wasn’t until our house burned down in a Malibu fire and I lost my studio that I primarily concentrated on using watercolors. By coincidence it was also during a time when I was ready to explore other art materials.”
“With the transparency, immediacy and unforgiving qualities of watercolor it continually forces me to dig deeper into my subjects. I use a wet and wet technique that is impossible to control so I’m continually starting over. By trying to keep the work fluid, there’s no way to prepare for the resulting image. The work is lost or gained within minutes. Needless to say it’s a very, costly pursuit. I go though reams of paper before I get anything that I might partially like. Everything goes into the trash. Oils are much easier to manipulate and much more forgiving, but unfortunately watercolor creates the effect I wish to achieve.”
“If Marlene Dumas‘ subjects had a ghostly doppelgänger, we imagine they’d look something like Kim McCarty‘s watercolors. Her portraits of youth are both innocent and unsettling, suffusing the unexpected qualities of humanity with an alien radiance.
The pale bodies, swirling with washed out pigment, resemble the fragile identity of an adolescent, pushing and pulling in infinite directions at once. Her boys and girls are barely held together at all, their tie-dyed interiors threatening to gush outside their thinly-drawn outlines.
McCarty invites strangeness to permeate personal portraits, which are inspired by photographs. The young subjects, fading away before your very eyes, embody the uncertain futures awaiting us in our youth. There is a noticeable hint of sexuality to the works, amplified by the exhibition’s title, “Boys & Girls,” and yet the gender of her subjects is arguably fluid. The works, light in texture and hue yet possessing darker undertones, ask us to look closer at those uncertain moments of adolescence.”
Like blurry afterimages drifting past closed eyelids, Kim McCarty’s watercolors hover between presence and absence, innocence and wisdom, and past, present, and future. Working rapidly, at times using only a single color and at others a haunting, bruise-inspired palette of acid yellows, greens, and browns, McCarty’s portraits evoke the sense of uncertainty, ambivalence, anxiety, and loss with which we view today’s generation. A graduate of UCLA (MFA) and the Art Center College of Design, Pasadena (BFA), McCarty has upcoming solo exhibitions with Morgan Lehman Gallery, and David Klein Gallery. Past exhibitions include Kim Light Gallery; Cherryandmartin, Los Angeles, Briggs Robinson. Recent group exhibitions include, Sex Sells, Showstudio, London, Eve, Subliminal Projects, Los Angeles, LA Emerging Artists, at the Dominique Fiat Gallery. Liquid Los Angeles: Contemporary Watercolor, Pasadena Museum of Art. Erotic Drawing, Aldrich Museum of Art, Ridgefield, Connecticut. McCarty is in the collections of The Museum of Modern Art, UCLA Hammer Museum and the Honolulu Academy of Art.
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Zao Wou-ki, is 92 and he’s the top-selling living Chinese artist at auction.
He is well known for melding the application of Western brushwork to traditional Chinese landscape painting of the East. But at 92, he is too frail to continue painting. But before Zao Wou-ki hung up the brushes, he created a round of vivid watercolors.
Now, both a Hong Kong gallery and a French Museum (Musée de Rouen, see below) are capitalizing on these last works which were produced by the artist, who has had his studio in France for many years.
Zao is a unique cross-cultural figure. Born in Beijing in 1921, he studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Hangzhou before moving to Paris in 1948. His early work was heavily influenced by painters like Paul Klee and Othon Friesz, but he eventually shifted towards an abstract approach, especially after he spent time in New York, Hong Kong and Japan in 1958.
By the 1960s, Zao had developed his own, distinctive style, which often reflected an expressionist take on Chinese landscape painting.
FEAST Projects’ Exhibition Zao Wou-Ki – Beyond
Director Philippe Koutouzis’ interview is featured in RTHK TV programme : The Works, broadcasted on 30th October 2012, titled U-Theatre.
Painter Zao Wou-Ki was born in 1921 in Beijing, but moved to France in 1948. Now in his nineties, he no longer paints, but during his working life he has already created a massive legacy of abstract work, much of which seems to reflect the process of creation itself. Currently showing in Hong Kong’s FEAST Projects is “Beyond”, a selection of the water colours to which he returned in his later years.
On view in the “Beyond” exhibition in Hong Kong are a group of exceptional, large watercolour paintings coming directly from the artist’s studio, dated from 2004 to 2009. They belong to the most recent period in Zao Wou-Ki’s work: a series of large format watercolours that have dominated his pictorial output since 2004.
The works show a masterly control mixed with a spontaneous fluidity. Some were painted from nature, directly observing subjects such as flamboyant flowers, intertwining branches or a symphonic landscape. They convey with freshness and immediacy Zao’s intimate appreciation of Chinese and Western culture.
Zao Wou-Ki declares, “Although the influence of Paris is undeniable in all my training as an artist, I also wish to say that I have gradually rediscovered China. It has affirmed itself as my deeper personality. In my recent paintings, this is expressed in an innate manner. Paradoxically, perhaps, it is to Paris that I owe this return to my deepest origins.”
From an essay for an exhibition at Marlborough Gallery, NYC:
By the end of 1957 he had committed to abstraction, on terms which from the beginning set him apart from the other artists of his circle—Mitchell, Riopelle, Vieira da Silva, Soulages—as much as from his great supporter Henri Michaux. His cypher-like signature, to which he has remained faithful for over fifty years, gives his first name in Chinese characters and his last in a Western orthography. It is emblematic of a stranded cultural identity, recognized from the first by sympathetic critics as the key to his artistic direction. The recognition, however, took the form of a view of Zao’s painting as an exemplary reconciliation of Chinese and European aesthetics, in which the language of modern Western abstraction is enriched by a Chinese sensibility rooted in the past.(From the essay by Jonathan Hay)
When an exhibition of Zao Wou Ki’s works was arranged last year (2011) at a new gallery in Hong Kong, the gallery dealer described the artist in this way: “He’s one of the few Asian artists who kept his roots intact,” says de Sarthe. “Nowadays, we see so many artists who are doing the same thing as everyone in New York or elsewhere. It’s a shame because artists are a reflection of their culture. Even if we’re becoming more alike, Chinese people still don’t live the same way as Americans, and their work should reflect that.”
When Zao Wou-Ki arrived to live in Paris at age 27, Claude Monet was among the artists who was most inspirational to him. Zao created a magnificent tryptych in 1991, which he dedicated as an homage to Monet.
As he was sensitive to the particular links to the Musée de Rouen as a bellwether of Impressionism, Zao decided to place this exceptional work within their collection. To show appreciation for his generosity, about fifteen, watercolors, which were painted between 2003 and 2009, are being presented for the first time in a new exhibition. These watercolors reveal how Zao, in recent years, has restructured his response to the landscapes and nature.
A woman walks past the world’s largest triptych ever, produced by painter Zao Wou-ki and displayed at the Christie’s Hong Kong Spring Auction preview in Hong Kong on May 26, 2005. (Philippe Lopez/AFP/Getty Images)
ZAO Wou-Ki, at 92 years old, is a Chinese French painter and one of the world’s most prominent contemporary artist. Highlights of his life long achievements include: election to the Académie des Beaux-Arts in France, the decoration of Grand Officier de l’Ordre de la Légion d’Honneur by the President of France, the Praemium Imperiale Award for Painting by the Japanese Art Association in Tokyo, Japan and numerous important solo and retrospective shows in museums throughout the world, the Galerie Nationale du Jeu de Paume in France; the National Art Museum of China; and the Hong Kong Museum of Art, to name a few.
Born in 1920, Zao began his training at the age of 15 at the School of Fine Arts in Hangzhou, under its founder Lin Fengmian. In 1948 he left China for Paris to study modern painting. Zao is part of the second generation of Chinese modern artists who went to Paris. With his two contemporaries Chu Teh-Chun and T’ang Haywen, he belongs to a group of “overseas” Chinese painters who merged Chinese and European philosophy of art and aesthetics by inventing their own new abstract language. Once established in Europe, Zao found resonance in the creative journeys of both Paul Cézanne and Paul Klee. He worked towards representing subconscious levels of experience, leading to a penetrating form of artistic expression that transcends east and west, and melds intuition and consciousness. The result is a new perception of the meaning of art.